The purpose is to frustrate communication by the In-Waves. As we have said, the solution to this apparent paradox of the Particle/Wave duality is to simply explain how the discrete 'particle' properties (quanta) are in fact caused by standing Wave interactions. What we do discover though, is that from these foundations we get a simple explanation of both Charge/Light and Mass/Gravity. Application The application for graduate study Toronto available online , t\ ^n. We can now finally solve these problems by understanding the reason for these discrete energy states, which are due to the fact that standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies, like notes on the string of a guitar, thus while the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts that energy exchanges will be discrete, as observed, the continuous e-m wave does not anticipate this.

Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's (1900) discovery that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states for electrons in molecules and atoms, and further, that light is only ever emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum' amounts, as the electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another. (This is explained in more detail in section 1. 4)It is with some frustration that I now read these quotes, as it is obvious in hindsight as to their errors, and how simply they can now be solved! In 1900 Max Planck made a profound discovery. As gravity is explained in the article on, the general idea is only briefly summarised here. 130 where do i start? The Equivalence of Energy, Mass and Frequency and the Compton Wavelength Y of the Electron Y=h/mc = 2. 43*10 -12 m.

Similarly, there are no imaginable M. But it is the high Wave-Amplitude of the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave in Space (not of a continuous spherical force field) that causes the particle effect. P q theory phd thesis. Thus of three concepts, ** particles**, ** force fields**, and ** motion**, it finally turns out that Motion, as the spherical wave motion of space, is the correct concept, as it then explains both particles and fields. (For further explanation see Article on Relativity)

It is most important to realise though that Albert Einstein was correct in imagining matter as being spatially extended, as he explains; Surely it is time for physicists to start considering the fundamental theoretical problems of the existing theories and to appreciate that the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter is a simple, sensible, and obvious way to solve these problems!

Finally, let us explain how we can experimentally confirm the Spherical Wave Structure of Matter (which would obviously be very convincing to the skeptics! )In l935, Albert Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) put forward a gedanken (thought) experiment whose outcome they thought was certain to show that there existed natural phenomena that quantum theory could not account for. It is certainly true that the particle and its forces / fields are very useful mathematical concepts, unfortunately, they also cause many problems and paradoxes because they are approximations to reality and do not physically exist. Thus this solution is actually more consistent (and simpler) than Feynman's QED, particularly when we consider Feynman's further explanation of a positron being an electron which goes backwards in Time.

To do this we must begin by explaining the experimental foundations of Quantum Theory;

1. In reality, Matter, as a structure of scalar spherical quantum waves, has a finite wave amplitude at the Wave-Center (as observed) and thus eliminates the infinities and the problems of renormalisation found in Feynman's Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). (See the Work of Wolff at for a complete explanation. )James Maxwell (1876) used the experimental (empirical) results of Faraday, Coulomb, etc. E. And here we have a final piece of the puzzle in a sense, for it was Schrodinger who discovered that the ** standing waves are scalar waves** rather than vector electromagnetic waves. As Wolff explains this is simply a mathematical truth caused by the fact that a negative time in the wave equations changes the phase of the standing waves to be equal and opposite, which corresponds to antimatter. (Antimatter does no move 'backwards in time'! )

Further, notice what Feynman says about photons, which are treated as particles in QED, and thus by Feynman's logic there should also be anti-photons, whereas the WSM is clear on this point - there are anti-electrons (positrons) which are opposite phase Spherical Standing Waves, but there are no separate photon particles, thus no anti-photons! Etc. While it may be clever, it is not good philosophy, and it has led to a very confused and absurd modern physics. As Albert Einstein explains;